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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 51-56

Defeat and entrapment in the pathogenesis of suicidal behavior


1 Professor and HOD, Department of Psychiatry, Gitam Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Gitam Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India
3 Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Gitam Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India
4 Senior Resident, Department of Psychiatry, Gitam Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India
5 Assistant Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Maharaja Institute of Medical Sciences, Vizianagaram, Andhra Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Srinivas Singisetti
Department of Psychiatry, Gitam Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Visakhapatnam - 530 045, Andhra Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/AMH.AMH_50_20

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Introduction: Human behavior is very complex and driven by different motivations. At times, we find a deviant escape behavior in some situations, characterized by streaks of self-destruction or “suicidal behavior.” Defeat and entrapment have been hypothesized as central to this behavior. Aim: We aimed to study the relationship between defeat, entrapment, suicidal ideation, and suicidal attempt. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study of fifty patients who attempted suicide and survived the attempt. When medically fit for psychological assessment, they were approached in a person in the hospital psychiatric ward. These patients were subjected to a detailed psychiatric interview, and any psychiatric illness in the patients was diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders V criteria. They were assessed on the defeat and entrapment scales by Gilbert and Allan. The Modified Scale for Suicidal Ideation by Ivan W. Miller was used to determine the presence or absence of suicidal ideation and severity of suicidal ideation. Results: The presence of a current depressive disorder diagnosis and planning of attempt had a significant association with higher scores on internal entrapment, total entrapment, defeat, and suicidal ideation scales. The scores on defeat, internal entrapment, total entrapment, and suicidal ideation scales correlated positively and highly significantly. Conclusion: Entrapment and defeat are identified as important in the pathogenesis of depression and self-harm. Arrested escape and flight appear as motivation for suicidal behavior.


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