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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 162-165

Sexual dysfunctional beliefs among male and female medical students


1 Post Graduate, Department of Psychiatry, Mamata Medical College, Khammam, Telangana, India
2 Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Mamata Medical College, Khammam, Telangana, India
3 Professor, HOD, Department of Psychiatry, Mamata Medical College, Khammam, Telangana, India
4 Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Mamata Medical College, Khammam, Telangana, India

Date of Web Publication31-Dec-2018

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Raghuram Macharapu
Department of Psychiatry, Mamata Medical College, Khammam, Telangana
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/AMH.AMH_35_18

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  Abstract 


Objective: The aim was to study about the sexual dysfunctional beliefs among male and female medical students and analyze the factors in which the beliefs are more obvious.
Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted among male and female interns in Mamata General Hospital, Khammam. The present study consists of 156 participants, 68 students were excluded from the study as they are not willing to give consent, so the study was conducted on 88 students. The study was conducted using “sexual dysfunctional beliefs questionnaire – male and female versions.” The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee.
Results: Sexual dysfunctional beliefs among females and males showed significance of P value. In females, there is a significant positive correlation among all the variables and whereas in males, there is both significant positive correlation and negative correlation among the variables.
Conclusion: Overall, findings in the current study population suggest that dysfunctional sexual beliefs are more in men than in women. In males, “Macho belief” is more evident than other factors and whereas in females, it is sexual conservatism.

Keywords: Dysfunctional sexual beliefs, medical students, sexual dysfunctional beliefs questionnaire male and female versions


How to cite this article:
Kandhi SR, Macharapu R, Reddy PK, Babu RS. Sexual dysfunctional beliefs among male and female medical students. Arch Ment Health 2018;19:162-5

How to cite this URL:
Kandhi SR, Macharapu R, Reddy PK, Babu RS. Sexual dysfunctional beliefs among male and female medical students. Arch Ment Health [serial online] 2018 [cited 2019 Mar 25];19:162-5. Available from: http://www.amhonline.org/text.asp?2018/19/2/162/248890




  Introduction Top


Many of us have certain notions about sex, formed through our upbringing and culture. But for some, beliefs can interfere with sexuality. Sometimes, dysfunctional sexual beliefs may play a role as vulnerability factors for sexual dysfunction regardless of sexual orientation.

Beliefs are ideas that we have about ourselves, others, or the world, that guide the way we interpret events, influencing our behavior and emotions. According to cognitive theory, there are two different levels of beliefs, a more nuclear and unconditional one, called core belief, and a more intermediate and conditional one (usually known as attitude or conditional belief). Several clinical reports and theoretical works point to some recurrent beliefs as etiologic factors of sexual dysfunction. Religious beliefs and conservatism,[1] fear of intimacy and losing control[1],[2],[3],[4],[5],[6] body-image beliefs,[1],[4] and beliefs about the role of affection in sex[7] are among the most common cited etiologic causes of female sexual dysfunction, while high-performance beliefs, beliefs about women's sexual satisfaction, and sexual conservatism appear as the top listed causes of male sexual disorders.[2],[8],[9]

However, despite the strong convergence of these theoretical formulations based on clinical observations, its empirical validity remains to be tested in a systematic basis, and assessment instruments designed to do so are lacking.

To test these hypotheses, we developed measures of sexual beliefs for males and females (Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire [SDBQ] male and female versions;[10]), specifically aimed at assessing beliefs assumed to be associated with sexual dysfunction.

SDBQ consists of a principal component analysis with varimax rotation of the female version identified six factors accounting for 43% of the total variance.

Sexual conservatism

Coitus is the central aspect of human sexuality, and masturbation, oral sex, and anal sex are seen as deviant and sinful activities. Women play a passive, receptive sexual role, with virginity being an important value for nonmarried women.

Sexual desire and pleasure as a sin

Sex is a male activity, and women must control their sexual urges and pleasure since these are sinful experiences.

Age-related beliefs

Sexual desire, pleasure, and orgasm decrease with age, especially after menopause.

Body image beliefs: Body image is a central aspect of female sexuality.

Denying affection primacy

Affection, love, and agreement between partners constitute the central aspect of human sexuality. Since most items in this factor presented negative loadings, higher factor scores signify lower affection primacy.

Motherhood primacy

Motherhood activities are the most important female pleasure, and procreation is the main goal of any sexual experience.

The principal[11] component analysis with varimax rotation of the SDBQ male version identified six factors that accounted for 49% of the total variance.[12]

Sexual conservatism-coitus/procreation primacy

Sex before marriage is unacceptable, and sex has to be quick, directed to coitus, without foreplay, with man on top, and serving procreative goals.

Female sexual power/need for sexual control

Female sexual power can be dangerous, and if men do not control their sexual urges, they will fall under women's power.

“Macho” belief

Men should always be ready for sex, should satisfy all women, and should maintain an erect penis until the end of any sexual activity.

Beliefs about women's sexual satisfaction

It is important to satisfy female partners, and penile erection and vaginal coitus are necessary conditions to satisfy women sexually.

Restricted attitude toward sexual activity

Sexual fantasies, oral sex, and anal sex are unhealthy or incorrect experiences.

Sex as an abuse of men's power

Sex is an act of violation or abuse of woman's body by a male.


  Materials and Methods Top


Place of study

The study was conducted in Mamata General Hospital, Khammam, and Telangana.

Study period

The study undertaken from August 2018 to January 2018 in Mamata Medical College following the college's ethical committee approval.

Study sample

The study sample consists of 88 male and female interns of Mamata General Hospital. These subjects were instructed to answer the questionnaires anonymously when alone in respect to their privacy and then asked to return them by dropping in a dropbox.

Study design

The study design was a cross-sectional study.

Inclusion criteria

  1. Male and female interns who gave consent to participate in the study
  2. Interns between the age group of 23–25 years.


Exclusion criteria

  1. Participants who are not willing to give consent for the study.



  Methodology Top


Sexual dysfunctional beliefs questionnaire (male and female version)

The SDBQ[11],[12] is a 40-item questionnaire assessing specific stereotypes and beliefs presented in the clinical literature as predisposing factors to the development of male and female sexual dysfunctions.[2],[7],[13],[14] The questionnaire presents a male and a female version, each assessing specific gender-related beliefs. The participants are asked to identify the degree of concordance, from 1 (completely disagree) to 5 (completely agree), with 40 statements regarding diverse sexual issues.

Both male and female versions of the SDBQ were submitted to factor analysis.[12]

Statistical analysis

Data obtained were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, Version 20 (IBM Corp., SPSS statistics for windows, Armonk, NY, USA)[15] for Windows (version 21) and Microsoft Excel 2010. Categorical variables were analyzed with the Chi-square test. Statistical significance levels for all analyses were set at the P = 0.05.


  Results Top


Higher scores indicate stronger beliefs on the different questionnaire dimensions. The higher the scores on the total scale, the greater the dysfunctional beliefs. In females, the belief for sexual conservatism is higher, whereas in males, it is the macho belief.

Sexual dysfunctional beliefs were statistically significant for sexual conservatism and female sexual power (P < 0.05), sexual conservatism and macho belief (P < 0.05), sexual conservatism and beliefs about women's sexual satisfaction (P < 0.05), female sexual power and beliefs about women's sexual satisfaction (P < 0.05), and beliefs about women's sexual satisfaction and macho belief (P < 0.05).

Sexual dysfunctional beliefs among females and males showed significance of P value.


  Discussion Top


Data from the current study showed that the sexual dysfunction beliefs are more among males than in females.

According to [Table 1], females have the higher belief of sexual conservatism, which suggests that in their viewpoint coitus is the central aspect of human sexuality, and masturbation, oral sex, and anal sex are seen as deviant and sinful activities. Women play a passive, receptive sexual role, with virginity being an important value for nonmarried women.
Table 1: Sexual dysfunctional beliefs in females

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According to [Table 2], males have the higher “Macho belief” which is the factor dominated by the concept of man's capacity for being always ready for sex, should satisfy all women, and should maintain an erect penis until the end of any sexual activity.
Table 2: Sexual dysfunctional beliefs in males

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Findings in [Table 3] and [Table 4] suggest that
Table 3: Correlation between different factors among females

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Table 4: Correlation between different factors among males

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  • Among females, there is a significant positive correlation among all the variables
  • Among males, there is both significant positive correlation and negative correlation among the variables.


Sexual dysfunctional beliefs were statistically significant for

  • Sexual conservatism and female sexual power (P < 0.05)
  • Sexual conservatism and macho belief (P < 0.05)
  • Sexual conservatism and beliefs about women's sexual satisfaction (P < 0.05)
  • Female sexual power and beliefs about women's sexual satisfaction (P < 0.05)
  • Beliefs about women's sexual satisfaction and macho belief (P < 0.05).
  • According to [Table 5], Sexual dysfunctional beliefs among females and males showed significance of P value.
Table 5: Significance among males and females

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  Conclusion Top


Findings in the current study population suggest that dysfunctional sexual beliefs are more in men than in women. In males, “Macho belief” is more evident than other factors and whereas in females, it is “Sexual conservatism.”

Limitations

  • The small sample size is the major limitation of the study and further research needs to be conducted on a larger sample
  • Results cannot be generalized to the population as the study was conducted only in healthy individuals within a specific age group
  • The assessment was cross-sectional and not blind.


Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
LoPiccolo J, Friedman JM. Broad-Spectrum Treatment of Low Sexual Desire: Integration of Cognitive, Behavioral, and Systemic Therapy. New York, NY, US: Guilford Press; 1988.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Hawton K. Sex Therapy: A Practical Guide. Northvale, Oxford OX3 7JX, England: Oxford University Press; 1985.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Kaplan HS. The new sex therapy. Disorders of Sexual Desire and Other New Concepts and Techniques in Sex Therapy. Vol. 2. New York, NY: Brunner/Mazel; 1979.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Rosen R, Leiblum SR, editors. Case Studies in Sex Therapy. New York: Guilford Press; 1995.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Lazarus AA. A Multimodal Perspective on Problems of Sexual Desire, Behavior Therapy Institute: Sausalito, California, USA, Sexual Desire Disorders; 1988. p. 145-67.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Rosen RC, Leiblum SR. A Sexual Scripting Approach to Problems of Desire. New York: Guilford Press; 1995. p. 3-17.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Tevlin HF, Leiblum SR. Sex role stereotypes and female sexual dysfunction. In: Franks V and Rothblum E, editor. The Stereotyping of Women: Its Effects on Mental Health. New York:Springer; 1983. p. 129-50.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Zilbergeld B. The New Male Sexuality. New York: Bantam Books: Bantam Books; 1992.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Wincze JP, Barlow DH. Enhancing Sexuality: A Problem-Solving Approach Client Workbook. Santo Antonio, TX: Graywind Publications; 2004.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Nobre P, Gouveia JP. Erectile dysfunction: An empirical approach based on Beck's cognitive theory. Sex Relatsh Ther 2000;15:351-66.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Nobre PJ. Sexual Dysfunction: Contributions for the Construction of a Comprehensive Model Based on Cognitive Theory. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. Faculdade de Psicologia e Ciências da Educação da Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal; 2003.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Nobre P, Gouveia JP, Gomes FA. Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire (SDBQ). An instrument to assess sexual dysfunctional beliefs as vulnerability factors to sexual problems. Sexual Relationship Ther 2003;18:171-204.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Heiman JR, Lo Piccolo J. Becoming Orgasmic: A Sexual and Personal Growth Program for Women. Revised edition. New York: Prentice-Hall; 1988.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Zilbergeld B. The New Male Sexuality. Revised edition. New York: Batam Books; 1999.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Nie, Norman H., Dale H. Bent, and C. Hadlai Hull. “SPSS: Statistical package for the social sciences.” 1975:249.  Back to cited text no. 15
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]



 

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