|Year : 2018 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 111-114
A study to assess the knowledge of psychiatric aspects of alcohol use disorders in medical students
Goutham Tialam1, Raghuram Macharapu2, Pramod Kumar Reddy3, Ravulapati Sateesh Babu4
1 Assistant in Department of Psychiatry, Kakatiya Medical College, Warangal, Telangana, India
2 Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Mamata Medical College, Khammam, Telangana, India
3 Professor, HOD, Department of Psychiatry, Mamata Medical College, Khammam, Telangana, India
4 Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Mamata Medical College, Khammam, Telangana, India
|Date of Web Publication||31-Dec-2018|
Dr. Raghuram Macharapu
Department of Psychiatry, Mamata Medical College, Khammam, Telangana
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of psychiatric aspects of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in medical students.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in Mamata Medical College, Khammam, Telangana, from June 2014 to May 2015. The study sample consisted of 180 medical students (115 final year and 65 interns), who agreed to answer the Knowledge of Psychiatric Aspects of Alcohol Questionnaire (KPAAQ) anonymously, indicating their gender, year of study and whether they had attended any lecture or workshop on alcohol. KPAAQ consists of 50 questions of 6 clinically relevant categories. Each response to 50 questions of the KPAAQ was assessed. Each correct response was awarded 2 points, thereby, yielding a possible range from 0 to 100 points.
Results: The mean knowledge score in medical students was 44.53 (standard deviation = 11.23) without any significant differences (t = 1.171; P > 0.05) between final year students and interns, while the mean knowledge score was significantly more in 74 male students when compared to 106 female students (46.62 ± 10.58; 43.07 ± 11.49) (t = 2.103; P < 0.037).
Conclusions: Irrespective of their year of study. Knowledge of psychiatric aspects of AUDs in medical students was inadequate.
Keywords: Alcohol use disorders, knowledge, medical students
|How to cite this article:|
Tialam G, Macharapu R, Reddy PK, Babu RS. A study to assess the knowledge of psychiatric aspects of alcohol use disorders in medical students. Arch Ment Health 2018;19:111-4
|How to cite this URL:|
Tialam G, Macharapu R, Reddy PK, Babu RS. A study to assess the knowledge of psychiatric aspects of alcohol use disorders in medical students. Arch Ment Health [serial online] 2018 [cited 2019 Jul 18];19:111-4. Available from: http://www.amhonline.org/text.asp?2018/19/2/111/248886
| Introduction|| |
According to the WHO, Global Status Report on alcohol and health, 2014, around 30% of the total population of India consumed alcohol in the year 2010. The per capita consumption of alcohol in India had increased from 1.6 L from the period of 2003 to 2005 to 2.2 L from the period of 2010 to 2012. An average individual over the age of 15 years consumed 8 L of alcohol per annum in Kerala followed by Maharashtra and Punjab.
Worldwide consumption in 2010 was equal to 6.2 L of pure alcohol consumed per person aged 15 years or older, which translates into 13.5 g of pure alcohol per day. A quarter of this consumption (24.8%) was unrecorded, that is, homemade alcohol, illegally produced, or sold outside normal government controls. In 2012, about 3.3 million deaths, or 5.9% of all global deaths, were attributable to alcohol consumption. In 2012, 7.6% of deaths among males and 4.0% of deaths among females were attributable to alcohol.
A substantial proportion of alcoholics seek medical treatment for their physical complications rather than seek treatment for alcoholism. Referral to an emergency department or admission to a general hospital, therefore, provides a window of opportunity for intervention for these patients. Regrettably, however, there is evidence that doctors are not effective in detecting alcohol use disorder (AUD) in the hospital setting and elsewhere., Lack of appropriate training has been highlighted as a critical barrier for medical practitioners confronted by patients with alcohol problems.,
The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism has recommended that the impact of changing the medical curriculum should be examined with experimental or quasi-experimental designs. The International Center for Drug Policy described the core aims and learning outcomes in medical undergraduate curricula and good practice on delivery.
There is little research that addresses the baseline knowledge of the medical student and the retention of this knowledge following an educational intervention. Alcohol withdrawal syndromes in the general hospital and AUD in pregnancy have been identified as areas in which doctors need more training in recognition and assessment. The limited awareness of AUD by medical staff may relate to the view that alcohol morbidity has not been a serious problem in certain cultures.
A study recommended that there was an urgent need for further in-service training programs and the development of standard protocols/guidelines for the identification and management of substance using patients who present in the emergency department. Results also indicated that participants' current level of knowledge of about alcohol and drug misuse in general was satisfactory but a particular deficit in relation to intervention strategies and other substances was identified.
A number of interventions to improve detection rates of AUD in the hospital have been described, including a single screening question, individual feedback to junior medical officers, and the establishment of a drug and alcohol unit with a drug and alcohol education program.
Medical students have been surveyed about their knowledge, skills, and attitudes regarding alcohol and drugs, but the validity and reliability of the survey instrument is unclear.,,,, Low levels of knowledge were demonstrated in the areas of psychiatric complications of alcohol abuse, screening and low-risk drinking guidelines, problem drinking, and physician impairment. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge of psychiatric aspects of alcohol- and alcoholism-related issues in medical students.
| Materials and Methods|| |
A cross-sectional study was undertaken at Mamata Medical College, Khammam, Telangana, from June 2014 to May 2015. The study sample (180) consisted of 115 final year students and 65 interns who had given verbal consent.
The knowledge of psychiatric aspects of AUDs in medical students was assessed using the Knowledge of Psychiatric Aspects of Alcohol Questionnaire (KPAAQ) with an internal consistency of each category (metabolism of alcohol [0.71], short-term effects of alcohol [0.60], long-term effects of alcohol [0.70], AUD [0.70], alcohol withdrawal [0.85], and alcohol use in pregnancy [0.42]) and also for the whole questionnaire (0.92), yielding Cronbach's alpha values.
KPAAQ consists of 50 questions of 6 clinically relevant categories. Twenty questions from the Student Alcohol Questionnaire knowledge of alcohol subscale (consisting of 35 questions) were adapted as a basis for the KPAAQ and 30 questions were adapted from the Kaplan and Sadock textbook synopsis chapter on alcohol-related disorders. Each response to 50 questions of the KPAAQ was assessed as to whether it was correct or not. Each correct response was awarded 2 points, thereby, yielding a possible range from 0 to 100 points.
All the medical students were requested to answer the questionnaire anonymously, indicating their gender, year of study and whether they had attended any lecture or workshop on alcohol previously. Taking prior history of attending any lecture or workshop on alcohol, irrespective of when, where, and how many times each student had attended, was thought to have some effect on the individual knowledge score on alcohol.
Students were requested not to guess the answers, but rather, to indicate if they did know whether a statement was true or false.
Data obtained were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, Version 20 (IBM Corp., IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Armonk, NY, USA). The Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation were used.
| Results|| |
Psychiatric aspects of AUDs in both final year medical students and interns was inadequate and the mean knowledge score of male students was found to be statistically significant when compared to female students.
| Discussion|| |
[Table 1] shows the statistical analysis had depicted the mean knowledge score of final year students as 45.26 ± 10.90 and interns 43.23 ± 11.76 without any statistically significant difference between them (t = 1.171; P > 0.05). However, when the mean knowledge score of 74 male students (46.62 ± 10.58) was compared with 106 female students (43.07 ± 11.49), the difference was found to be statistically significant (t = 2.103; P < 0.037). The above finding of our study might be due to multiple reasons such as sociocultural differences between males and females about alcohol and related issues, open discussions on alcohol and its effects among male students, individual experiences with the substance and its effects, individual interests, priorities, and restrictions and also the sample size.
[Table 2] shows among final yr students 48 were males and 67 were females. Among interns 26 were males and 39 were females.
No statistically significant differences were observed between the knowledge scores of the medical students who had attended any lecture (27) or workshop (3) on alcohol to those who did not attend a lecture (153) or workshop (177). This result may be because of the very small sample size who had attended any lecture or workshop on alcohol.
[Table 3] shows the study findings showed that there was significant difference in the mean knowledge score of male and female medical students (t = 2.103; P < 0.037), [Table 4] shows no significant difference in the mean knowledge scores of final year students and interns irrespective of whether they had previously attended any lecture (t = 1.333; P > 0.05) on alcohol. [Table 5] shows no significant difference in the mean knowledge scores of final year students and interns irrespective of whether they had previously attended any workshop (t = 0.021; P > 0.05) on alcohol.
|Table 4: Mean knowledge score of medical students who had attended and not attended a lecture on alcohol|
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|Table 5: Mean knowledge score of medical students who had attended and not attended a workshop on alcohol|
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Previous studies that assessed the knowledge of psychiatric aspects of AUDs in medical students reported that adequate knowledge was lacking in the medical students, the results were confirmed in this study too. A study demonstrated that a brief, structured, educational intervention for emergency medicine residents contributed to a significant improvement in knowledge and practice with regard to patients with alcohol problems.
The difference in the mean knowledge score of final year students and interns was not statistically significant (t = 1.171; P > 0.05), but the mean knowledge score of the medical students was near to the findings of a study conducted by Jaworowski et al. at the Shaare Zedek Medical Centre, Jerusalem, Israel.
The statistically significant difference (t = 2.103; P < 0.037) in the mean knowledge score of male and female medical students is in accordance with the findings of a study of a sample of specialized services in Brazil nurses personal knowledge and their attitudes toward alcoholism issues by Vargas where male participants provided more correct answers on the knowledge questionnaire than female participants.
Our study demonstrated that only a few number of medical students had previously attended lecture (n = 27) or workshop (n = 3) on alcohol, and in spite of this experience, there was no significant difference in the knowledge acquired. The reason for this might be multifactorial like few numbers of medical students with additional academic exposure, lack of continuous lectures, training programs, or allotment of adequate teaching hours of psychiatric and mental health subjects.
| Conclusion|| |
Overall knowledge of psychiatric aspects of AUDs in both final year medical students and interns was inadequate (44.53 ± 11.23) and the mean knowledge score of male students was found to be statistically significant when compared to female students (t = 2.103; P < 0.037). Our study findings might be influenced by various factors such as potential differences in didactic teaching regarding alcohol and its effects, differences in individual as well as clinical exposure, sociocultural background of the medical students.
- Cross-sectional study design
- Small sample size
- Results cannot be generalized.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]